Design of the shoreline stabilization structures and the land management plan of coastal protective belts
For protecting and defensing of the river banks, lands and coastal lands is carried out of design and construction of the hydro technical, landslide protection and shoreline stabilization structures. The Land and Water Codes of Ukraine and the law of Ukraine «On lands protection» regulate the carrying out of mentioned above actions. From undermining and breaking-down the river/sea banks and coastal lands are protected through construction of the shoreline stabilization structures. The shoreline stabilization structure is an engineering structure that looks like scopes and aimed for protection of water bodies and banks.
Shoreline stabilization structures are made of various materials: wood (slabs, panels, planks, canes), stones (gabion), concrete and reinforced concrete slabs. The choice of a suitable material for making of shoreline stabilization structures depends on features of of banks (rocky, sand and mountain) and soils of coastal lands. For example, the banks of sea- and river ports are stabilized by the reinforced concrete slabs. Simultaneously, such type of shoreline stabilization structures protects the land plots and coastal lands from flooding in the spring. The rocky banks are defensed by the concrete slabs considering the height of waves. To protect the seaside, the bottom near the coast are embedded by the concrete slabs for reducing the impact of waves. To protect coastal forest areas, is used the wooden shoreline stabilization structures. In addition, the shorelines stabilization structures are classified as active and passive. Passive shoreline stabilization structures are aimed for protection from breaking (concrete and reinforced concrete slabs, gabions, pavement and sea walls), and active – not only beta the waves, but also contribute the formation of wave breaking zones (beaches, bun).
To implement the shoreline stabilization structures is required to develop a project. Designing process of shoreline stabilization structures includes: an ecological and engineering preparation (field observation, engineering and topographic surveys, preparing of project documentation) and development of measures to protect of area during construction of shoreline stabilization structures. In the process of designing of shoreline stabilization structures, designers and engineers must comply the following requirements as safety for ships, simplicity of design, priority in the use of natural building materials (stone, wood). To carry out the construction of shoreline stabilization structures should be exclusively outside the spawning period to reduce the impact on marine and limnetic organisms. In case of a fertile layer of soil, it is necessary to make its removal, and after construction – to return and use for improvement of site. During designing of shoreline stabilization structures, designer must consider the sizes of the coastal protective belt accordingly to the State Sanitary Rules 173-96. Together with the design of project of the shoreline stabilization structures, the experts of MCL, LLC offer the development of land management plan for a coastal protective belt.
In the context of environment, the implementation of shoreline stabilization structures contributes to the formation and protection of the underwater/surface part of the shore slope. At the same time, for additional soil fixing of coastal areas is assumed of planting greenery. During design and construction of mini hydro power plants, the implementation of shoreline stabilization structures is required to be included to project considering local landscape conditions for safe exploitation of micro hydro power plants. The construction of shoreline stabilization structure is a subject of environmental impact assessment (EIA) accordingly to the law of Ukraine «On environmental impact assessment». Thus, we can conclude that the design and construction of shoreline stabilization structures contributes of the protection of water and land resources, defense of coastal areas, but such type of actions must be in frameworks of environmental legislation. Thanks to an experience and knowledge, the specialists of MCL, LLC can guarantee the development of projects of shoreline stabilization structures and land management plan complying the environmental protection legislation.
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